Individuals with TSC have an increased risk of neuro-developmental and behavioral impairment. Although approximately 50% of people with TSC have normal intelligence, developmental delay and learning disabilities have commonly been found in children with TSC. Therefore, Early Intervention with physical, occupational and speech therapy is highly recommended.

Some of the behavioral disorders that are common in TSC include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (40-60%), pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and autism (20-58%), oppositional defiant disorder (25%) and sleep disturbance.

Autism is a developmental disability that presents with repetitive behaviors, difficulty with communication and social interactions. What causes autism in general is not known. The relationship between autism and TSC has been an intense area of investigation. However, it is unclear what is the underlying cause of autism in patients with TSC. Nonetheless, most clinicians agree that the sooner the autistic child begins an intervention program, the better the chances are of achieving his/her full potential.